Canción del Esposo Soldado- Miguel Hernández

Miguel Hernández
Miguel Hernández Gilabert. (Orihuela, 30 de octubre de 1910 – Alicante, 28 de marzo de 1942). Poeta y dramaturgo español.
De familia humilde, tiene que abandonar muy pronto la escuela para ponerse a trabajar; aún así desarrolla su capacidad para la poesía gracias a ser un gran lector de la poesía clásica española. Forma parte de la tertulia literaria en Orihuela, donde conoce a Ramón Sijé y establece con él una gran amistad.
A partir de 1930 comienza a publicar sus poesías en revistas como El Pueblo de Orihuela o El Día de Alicante. En la década de 1930 viaja a Madrid y colabora en distintas publicaciones, estableciendo relación con los poetas de la época. A su vuelta a Orihuela redacta Perito en Lunas, donde se refleja la influencia de los autores que lee en su infancia y los que conoce en su viaje a Madrid. 

Ya establecido en Madrid, trabaja como redactor en el diccionario taurino de Cossío y en las Misiones pedagógicas de Alejandro Casona; colabora además en importantes revistas poéticas españolas. Escribe en estos años los poemas titulados El silbo vulnerado e Imagen de tu huella, y el más conocido El Rayo que no cesa (1936).
Toma parte muy activa en la Guerra Civil española, y al terminar ésta intenta salir del país pero es detenido en la frontera con Portugal.  Condenado a pena de muerte, se le conmuta por la de treinta años pero no llega a cumplirla porque muere de tuberculosis el 28 de marzo de 1942 en la prisión de Alicante.
Durante la guerra compone Viento del pueblo (1937) y El hombre acecha (1938) con un estilo que se conoció como “poesía de guerra”. En la cárcel acabó Cancionero y romancero de ausencias (1938-1941). En su obra se encuentran influencias de Garcilaso, Góngora, Quevedo y San Juan de la Cruz.

 

“Canción del Esposo Soldado”

 

He poblado tu vientre de amor y sementera,
he prolongado el eco de sangre a que respondo
y espero sobre el surco como el arado espera:
he llegado hasta el fondo.

Morena de altas torres, alta luz y ojos altos,
esposa de mi piel, gran trago de mi vida,
tus pechos locos crecen hacia mí dando saltos
de cierva concebida.

Ya me parece que eres un cristal delicado,
temo que te me rompas al más leve tropiezo,
y a reforzar tus venas con mi piel de soldado
fuera como el cerezo.

Espejo de mi carne, sustento de mis alas,
te doy vida en la muerte que me dan y no tomo.
Mujer, mujer, te quiero cercado por las balas,
ansiado por el plomo.

Sobre los ataúdes feroces en acecho,
sobre los mismos muertos sin remedio y sin fosa
te quiero, y te quisiera besar con todo el pecho
hasta en el polvo, esposa.

Cuando junto a los campos de combate te piensa
mi frente que no enfría ni aplaca tu figura,
te acercas hacia mí como una boca inmensa
de hambrienta dentadura.

Escríbeme a la lucha, siénteme en la trinchera:
aquí con el fusil tu nombre evoco y fijo,
y defiendo tu vientre de pobre que me espera,
y defiendo tu hijo.

Nacerá nuestro hijo con el puño cerrado
envuelto en un clamor de victoria y guitarras,
y dejaré a tu puerta mi vida de soldado
sin colmillos ni garras.

Es preciso matar para seguir viviendo.
Un día iré a la sombra de tu pelo lejano,
y dormiré en la sábana de almidón y de estruendo
cosida por tu mano.

Tus piernas implacables al parto van derechas,
y tu implacable boca de labios indomables,
y ante mi soledad de explosiones y brechas
recorres un camino de besos implacables.

Para el hijo será la paz que estoy forjando.
Y al fin en un océano de irremediables huesos
tu corazón y el mío naufragarán, quedando
una mujer y un hombre gastados por los besos.

 

  • 11 estrofas con 4 versos cada uno.

 

  • historia:

 

El poeta nos muestra las realidades a las que se enfrenta el soldado en la trinchera. Por un lado la de estar luchando en la batalla y, al mismo tiempo, pensar en la mujer que deja atrás, en su esposa Josefina y en el hijo que esta por nacer. Es duro saber que se está luchando y que la mujer está embarazada, mientras espera en la trinchera para combatir.

 

Recuerda a la mujer que ama, su cuerpo y lo que lo desea. Analiza el embarazo de su esposa con la imagen de la cierva, como si fuera una señal de pureza y tiene miedo de que le ocurra algo, tanto a ella como al niño que lleva dentro. El soldado le expresa todo el amor que le tiene sabiendo que puede morir por un disparo, algo que éste no desea.

Anhela los besos de su esposa mientras la muerte lo rodea y los cadáveres se hacinan. Lo único que le mantiene con ánimo es el deseo de volver a besarla. Le pide que le escriba para darle fuerzas para regresar a casa y poder cuidar de ella y del pequeño. Desea dejar atrás su vida de soldado y ver crecer y educar a su hijo en un país y tierra libres.

Es soldado es consciente de que, para que viva, otros tienen que morir. Sólo ella será capaz de hacer olvidar esos recuerdos tan dolorosos. Mientras ella pare, mientras ella traía al mundo vida y amor, a él lo rodea la guerra, la muerte. El soldado desea que sus actos hagan que su hijo viva en un país en paz y que tras tanto sufrimiento y muertos, el amor esté nuevo entre ellos, que solo importe el amor que los une.

El poeta nos recuerda en este poema lo cruentas que son las guerras y como separa a hijos de sus padres, a esposos de sus mujeres e hijos. Lo único que separa el retorno de la muerte es la suerte de no recibir el impacto de una bala y quedar tendido en el suelo, que será pisado por otros soldados que avanzarán hacia una nueva batalla. Lo más importante de este poema es que, aunque es un momento trágico, un instante previo a la batalla, podemos intuir una ligera esperanza y creencia de que el soldado volverá junto a su mujer y verá crecer a su hijo.

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  • Historia: Guerra Civil Española. Hernández se alistó por entonces en el bando republicano. En el verano de 1936 también se afilió al Partido Comunista de España y desde comienzos de 1937 es comisario político militar. El 19 de diciembre de 1937 nació su primer hijo, Manuel Ramón, que murió a los pocos meses, el 19 de octubre de 1938.

 

  • Lingüista: pertenece al género lírico porque el autor transmite los sentimientos por el nacimiento de su hijo pero a la vez de nostalgia por no estar con su esposa e hijo por nacer.

 

Publicado en 5AC2018, Literatura | Deja un comentario

Presentación del Mundial

Publicado en 5AC2018, historia | Deja un comentario

Language Activity on Descriptive Writings

After working with some activities from the booklet on descriptive adjectives and tones we were asked to choose to photos from Patos blog and to describe them together. These are the pictures I chose.

  

As we do every Sunday, my husband and I took our two gorgeous and gleeful daughters. The field we chose for our picnic this time was a deserted garden near our house. The field was surrounded by  magnificent red roses, ravishing daisy flowers and colorful lavenders.

The sun was shining as bright as I had ever seen it. The sky was as blue as the ocean and splendorous butterflies that flew above us as if we weren’t even there. The white tablecloth I brought from our house covered the growing emerald grass and protected our food from the environment. I took out the tart I had bake that morning and the smell of fresh cilantro and rosemary invaded our nostrils instantly. The girls were so hungry that we got to eating the moment we got to the field.

As the hours went by the sun started to leave the peak of the sky and a crisp wind made us have to wear a sweater. The girls were still running through the field playing with our dog under the few rays of sunlight that still were present while playing with dandelions. My husband and I were having a glass of champagne celebrating that we were expecting our third child!

Publicado en 5AC2018, language | Deja un comentario

Histagram: Rebecca Harding Davis

With our teacher Lenny we created instagram accounts for some iconic characters from the 1800s as if social media had existed during their time. With Sofia Montoya we chose Rebecca Harding davis, an artist from Wheeling, Virginia. Here is the instagram profile we created for her.

 

Publicado en 5AC2018, history | Deja un comentario

My Son the Fanatic

With our teacher Pato we read a story called “My Son The Fanatic” and then asked us to answer some questions, here is the work I did Vicky Quiroga, Jose Tasca and Ali Claps.

Task 1

  1. What prevents Parvez from communicating directly with his son?
    He is afraid of confronting him, and finds it easier to find the answers on his friends, who speculate on possible situations that the son might be going through, which results in the worst. They prejudge him.
  2. What is Parvez’s dream for Ali’s future?
    He wishes his son to become an accountant to fulfill his bigger dream that is to fit in the English society.
  3. How would you describe the personality of the following characterize:
    a. Parvez
    self-centered, cares a lot of image or reputation, idealistic, doesn’t have a paternal image, etc.

b. Ali: fundamentalist, able to do anything in order to transmit his religious beliefs, even sacrificing his life and other innocent ones.

c. Bettina: She is a prostitute, who tries to help and give advice although she doesn’t have children. She interferes in Parvez and Ali relationship which might not be the best option, as it weakened their relations.

  1. How would you describe the following relationships?
    a. Parvez and Ali at the beginning of the story
    They are strangers. They live under the same roof but barely know each other. Parvez had an idealistic son but Ali showed him that he was not who he thought.

b. Parvez and Ali at the end of the story: They finally revealed their true self of each other and derived in a serious conflict, which even involved violence.

d. Parvez and Bettina: They support each other and provide company and advice. They also were involved in a sexual relationship.

e. Parvez and his coworkers: They do not have enough confidence to show themselves as they really are, and have a superficial relationship.

f. Parvez and his wife: We don’t know anything about their relationships. They don’t share anything more than a son, to whom they didn’t have a relationship either.

5.What advice does Bettina give Parvez?

To talk to him, listen and find the true side of him. Understand his teenage mind, who is going through a temporary face in his life that with time will go away.

6.What memory from Pakistan haunts Parvez?
It is a memory about his childhood when he went to school where they forced to learn the Koran, even when tiredness conquered them. This strict and insistent measures made him walk away of any type of religion.

7. What rules does Ali criticize Parvez for breaking?
Drinking alcohol & eating meat

8.Why does Parvez like England?

Because they have access to anything they want there, and doesn’t have to follow any religious beliefs that condition their lives.

9. Why does Ali hate London?

Because he believes that western education cultivates an anti-religious attitude.

  1. What was the “last straw” that led Parvez to violence?

When, after having excessively drunk, goes to Ali’s room and finds him praying, after all that have happened.

  1. What does Ali mean in the last line of the story?

By saying that, he intends to say that he is no lo reveals the truth. He was not the only fanatic. His father was also a fanatic of the Englishmen. Who hit their children when they do something they do not agree with, or they disobey their parents.

Task 2

Complete the plot diagram online

Task 3

Finally, choose one of the following tasks to write between 450 and 600 words

a. write a different ending of the story.

b. write a letter to Parvez showing empathy.

c. write the story from the point of view of the mother.

Always take into account context, culture and traditions!!

Task 1 and 2 must be posted in your blog and can be solved in pairs.

Task  3 is individual and must be handed in on Friday May 4 (on paper)

Publicado en 5AC2018, literature, Uncategorized | Deja un comentario

Quiz on connectors

With Fran Costamagna and Ali Claps we created this quiz for our classmates to practice. Here is the link to our quiz.

Publicado en 5AC2018, language | Deja un comentario

Evening in Paradise

With Pato, our Lit and Language teacher, we saw a poem by John Milton called “Evening in Paradise”. In this entry I will talk about the author and analyse the poem.

-What kind of writer was he? Explain.

John Milton was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost.

-He wrote Paradise Lost. What is it about?

Paradise Lost is about Adam and Eve–how they came to be created and how they came to lose their place in the Garden of Eden, also called Paradise. It’s the same story you find in the first pages of Genesis, expanded by Milton into a very long, detailed, narrative poem.

-Now, read the poem and say what you understand from it using your own words. (work on vocabulary)

Now came still Evening on, and Twilight gray
Had in her sober livery all things clad;
Silence accompanied; for beast and bird,
They to their grassy couch, these to their nests
Were slunk, all but the wakeful nightingale.
She all night longer her amorous descant sung:
Silence was now pleased. Now glowed the firmament
With living Saphirs; Hesperus, that led
The starry host, rode brightest, till the Moon,
Rising in clouded majesty, at length
Apparent queen, unveiled her peerless light,
And o’er the dark her silver mantle threw;
When Adam thus to Eve: “Fair consort, the hour
Of night, and all things now retired to rest
Mind us of like repose; since God hath set
Labour and rest, as day and night, to men
Successive, and the timely dew of sleep,
Now falling with soft slumberous weight, inclines
Our eye-lids. Other creatures all day long
Rove idle, unemployed, and less need rest;
Man hath his daily work of body or mind
Appointed, which declares his dignity,
And the regard of Heaven on all his ways;
While other animals unactive range,
And of their doings God takes no account.
Tomorrow, ere fresh morning streak the east
With first approach of light, we must be risen,
And at our pleasant labour, to reform
Yon flowery arbours, yonder alleys green,
Our walk at noon, with branches overgrown,
That mock our scant manuring, and require
More hands than ours to lop their wanton growth.
Those blossoms also, and those dropping gums,
That lie bestrown, unsightly and unsmooth,
Ask riddance, if we mean to tread with ease.

Small glossary:

sober livery – plain clothes;
clad – dressed up in;
slunk – crept quietly;
descant – melody sung above another song;
firmament – heaven;
Saphirs – sapphires;
Hesperus – another name for Venus (the planet);
repose – a state of rest.

This extract from “Paradise Lost” talks about  the primordial war between God and Satan. The poem talks about the animals that lived in the Paradise with Adam and Eve and what they did when the sun started going down. The only one that is not preparing to “sleep” is the nightingale which will sing all night. The stars start to appear and later the moon joins them. The vocabulary Milton uses is also related to all this heavenly stories and God.

TASK 1

“THE FIRST 12 LINES SHOW AN ANALOGY BETWEEN EVENING AND PARADISE” ACCOUNT FOR THIS.

The first 12 lines show an analogy between evening and paradise. The writes expresses that night is beautiful, it’s the time when you rest, when you are at peace. This description of the night is used to explain heaven, paradise. Both have similar features, such as resting, being at peace, being beautiful, and so the explanation of the evening is used to compare and explain heaven too; that’s why it is said to be an analogy.

TASK 2

SEMANTIC FIELD: “DAY/NIGHT – NATURE – JEWELS”. QUOTE TO PROVE THIS.

-Day/night: “twiglight” “lightingale” “moon” “dark” “wakeful” “silence” “descant”

-Nature: “lightingale” “beast” “bird” “nests”

_Jewelry: “sapphires” “glowed” “hesperus” “brightest” “majesty”

TASK 3

FIND AT LEAST THREE LITERARY DEVICES AND EXPLAIN THE IMAPCT ON THE READER. WHY ARE THEY USED?

  1. Enjambent is used to catch the reader’s attention, to keep him trapped and following the poem until the end.
  2. There is a very powerful analogy  in the poem. There is an analogy between sleep and death. The poet is using the “night”, the “rest”, “noon” to explain a greater thing, heaven, death and afterlife. This is made because sometimes, to explain such a great and complex topic as death, it’s better to use analogies with normal, daily thing such as sleeping.
  3. Personification is also used in the poem. “Silence was now pleased.”. In this line we can see that there is a personification. SIlence is givene human characteristics, silence cannot be pleased. 

TASK 4

IS THE SCENE JUST PROTRAYED AS A PEACEFUL NATURAL SCENE? COULD THIS ALSO BE A FUNERAL SCENE? ACCOUNT FOR YOUR ANSWERS.

In my opinion, it can be seen from both point of views, since an analogy is made. The peacful natural scene could be sleeping, that could also be accositaed with death. But, now, it depends on what do you think when you think about a funeral scene. Aren’t funerals natural scenes? I think that they completely are because we are all surely going to die so it’s natural. Aren’t funerals peaceful? In my opinion they also are, maybe the person that died was suffering from a horrible disease and now she is in rest, finally tranquil.

TASK 5

“light” “fresh morning” “labour” “eyelids” “retire” “risen” “work”

Publicado en 5AC2018, literature | Deja un comentario

Questions pn Games at Twilight

I worked with Sofia Montoya and Felicitas Donato and in the following virtual period we had to select 10 quotes taken from the story we had already read called Games at Twilight written by Anita Desai and analyze them.

The ignominy of being forgotten – how could he face it?
This Quote represents a very important moment in the story where we can find Ravi reflecting about life and how frustrating it is to be forgotten by your own friends.

“Silence by a terrible sense of his insignificante”
In this quote Ravi is going through a moment of accepting reality and how disgusting it is to be forgotten by your own friends. When someone remembers you is because he cares about you and you are significant for that person, this means Ravi wasn’t neither remembered or significant to his friends.

“His voice broke with rage and pity at the disgrace of it all and he felt himself flooded with tears and misery.”
This quote represents the moment at which Ravi realized he has been forgotten. He went out of the shed and saw his friends playing another game, while he was hiding. This quote shows the exactly feeling of loneliness and disappointment, the misery and pain of not having won and being forgotten.

“He had wanted victory and triumph – not a funeral.”
This quotes shows the importance of the game for Ravi. It was clear that for him it meant more than just a little kids game, and he really wanted to win. But after realizing that he couldn’t win because his friends were playing another game he had ended up in his own funeral.

“…his success had occupied him so wholly that he had quite forgotten that success had to be clinched by that final dash to victory…”
This quote represents the feelings of Ravi throughout all the story. First, he wanted to succeed and for that reason he was happy and enthusiastic. He felt as if he was the best hide and sick player. But then, when he realized that for succeeding he needed to finish the game, that was the moment he realized he was not the best player because he had not touched the wall to be a winner.

He…wondered how many more creatures were watching him, waiting to reach out and touch him, the stranger.

The following quote shows how Ravi was feeling when hiding on the shelter, afraid of the dark and all the animals that could be hiding with him. He saw Raghu as the stranger who was trying to catch and touch him and the animals and creepy things he imagined were the creatures.
It took them a minute to grasp what he was saying, even who he was. They had quite forgotten him.

Ravi had been forgotten. Alone in the shelter after long hours of being hided in the dark he was still playing the game, but his friends didn’t, they were already starting to play another game. As he came out of the shed and shouted that he had won and the other children stared at him in amazement, the fantasy that he had created crushed and he ended up humiliated.
It was an insect…exploring him.

Ravi has chosen to hide on the unused shed. It was seldom opened and filled with the detritus of the households broken chairs and tables, old buckets and such like. He had never been inside when it was lit up, much less in pitch darkness like now. The smells emanating from the inside suggested there were different sorts of creatures hiding in there. Ravi was glad he had got away from Raghu but also terrified by the spooky insides of the shed where nothing was visible. But there was something he felt crawling at the back of his neck, a spider!
No life stirred at this arid time of day

The following quote shows the weather at India where the whole story takes place. Desai provides very vivid imagery such as this throughout the story to remind us of the dogged, unforgiving heat by direct description.
To defeat Raghu…and to be the winner…would be thrilling beyond imagination.
This quote directly illustrates the theme of fantasy vs reality because it represent the part when Ravi was going to win and was so proud of himself that he didn’t realize how long he had been hiding. It represents his fantasy of being as good as the older kids.

Publicado en 4AC2017, literature | Deja un comentario

Ensayo sobre los cuentos de Juan Rulfo

Trabajo práctico para presentar el 17/11 (fecha límite 18/11):

Escribir un ensayo argumentativo en el cual se justifique la relación de los cuentos de El llano en llamas, de Juan Rulfo, con la narrativa característica de los autores del boom latinoamericano.

  • Presentar al menos 3 argumentos.
  • Utilizar citas pertinentes.
  • Analizar ambos cuentos leídos en clase.

PRESENTACIÓN: en el blog, en una entrada independiente con título “Ensayo sobre los cuentos de Juan Rulfo”

IMPORTANTE: no confundir boom latinoamericano con realismo mágico.

Antes de empezar con la tarea, los alumnos deben responderse las siguientes preguntas (no es necesario escribir las respuestas):

  1. ¿Qué es el boom y qué es el realismo mágico? En una palabra. Boom: fenómeno literario, realismo mágico: género literario.
  2. ¿Siempre coinciden? Si
  3. Situaciones tales como la pobreza, las guerras, las dictaduras, un clima inhóspito ¿son características de la región latinoamericana? ¿son características del realismo mágico o se relacionan con él de alguna otra manera? ¿son características del boom? Son características de latinoamérica, que se relacionan con el realismo mágico.
  4. La naturaleza como una fuerza misteriosa y mágica… ¿es una característica de Latinoamérica? No, es una característica del realismo mágico.

 

Es muy común confundir el boom latinoamericano con el realismo mágico ya que el momento mas esplendoroso de este género literario fue durante el boom. El boom latinoamericano fue un fenómeno editorial en el cual cuentos de escritores latinoamericanos fueron vendidos a gran escala en países europeos. En este ensayo voy a comparar dos cuentos del libro El Llano en Llamas de Juan Rulfo, llamados “Nos han dado la tierra” y también “La noche que lo dejaron sólo”.

Ambos cuentos presentan similitudes entre sí que son características de los países latinoamericanos. El cuento `Nos han dado la tierra´ esta situado en un llano y Rulfo utiliza esto para resaltar los rasgos de la naturaleza en estos territorios, como por ejemplo las altas temperaturas, “Uno platica aquí y las palabras se calientan en la boca con el calor de afuera.” Con esta cita Rulfo resalta ciertas características de algunos países latinoamericanos. Por otro lado su cuento “La noche que lo dejaron solo” esta situado en un territorio mas frío y con mas relieves ya que, desde el principio del cuento se sabe que es una sierra. “Allí estaban la tierra fría y el sudor convertido en agua fría.” Con esta cita Rulfo da a conocer otros territorios de Latinoamérica, de esta manera ampliando el conocimiento de los europeos sobre los países del sur.

Otra manera de hacer conocer Latinoamérica es atraves de sus distintas políticas. En “La noche que lo dejaron solo” vemos una guerra mexicana entre dos bandos, dispuestos a matar. El protagonista se ve amenazado por sus enemigos quienes lo están esperando para matarlo. “Tiene que venir. Todos están arrendando para la Sierra de Comanja a juntarse con los cristeros del Catorce. Estos son ya de los últimos. Lo bueno seria dejarlos pasar para que les dieran guerra a los compañeros de Los Altos”. Con esta cita Rulfo describe brevemente la guerra en donde, el bando opuesto a nuestro protagonista esta en busca de este para matarlo y como el bando de nuestro protagonista esta dispuesto a dar pelea.

En el cuento ” Nos han dado la tierra” a nuestros protagonistas se les otorga un pedazo de tierra , el llano, por parte del gobierno.  Esa tierra no servia para cosechar ni nada que les diera sustento. Ahí podemos ver como la corrupción es algo tan presente en los gobiernos latinoamericanos, solo buscan el bien propio y no el de sus ciudadanos. ” Nosotros paramos la jeta para decir que el llano no lo queríamos. Que queríamos lo que estaba junto al río.” Rulfo utiliza sus cuentos para mostrarle al mundo que los países latinoamericanos no son todos iguales y sus políticas tampoco.

En conclusión, Rulfo logra mostrar las culturas, políticas y faunas de los distintos países latinoamericanos por medio de sus cuentos “Nos han dado la tierra” y ” La noche que lo dejaron solo” durante este fenómeno que fue el boom.  Gracias a este, los distintos países pudieron ver y capaz entender un poco más que es lo que sucede en Latinoamérica.

Publicado en 4AC2017, lengua | 1 comentario

Last History Virtual Period

For this week’s virtual period in History we have to do some research on the creation and develop of the railways in Argentina and how Britain influenced on it and how.

From the beginning of our history with Britain it’s been known that the British were interested in South America as the new world discovered by Spain. Britain was particularly interested in Argentina and proved it by failing to invade us twice in our country’s history.

Later on Argentina started a foreign policy with Great Britain which benefited them much more than it did us. Those policies consisted on us completely depend on their economy by buying almost everything from them while they only bought us a third of what we bought them.

These policies also involved our railway systems which Britain insisted on them being the ones building the actual trains. Apart from investing on our transport they got particularly involved in communication and navigation.

The Western Rail Company was created in 1855 with mainly local capitals in order to build the first railway line. This line ran from Parque Station (where the Colón Opera House stands today) to Flores, eight miles to the west. This line was officially opened in August 1857 and grew from there.

The Northern Railway of Buenos Aires, the Buenos Aires and Ensenada Railway, the East Argentine Railway or the Buenos Aires to Campana Line were created shortly after but were incorporated by bigger British companies.

In 1948, President Perón decided to nationalise the seven railway companies operating in Argentina at the time. This was considered a turning point because it was thought to bring about economic independence. All it did was deepen the economic crises from the 1950s onwards by contributing heavily towards the national budget deficits and deteriorate the quality of the rail service and the rolling stock in a downward spiral.

Resultado de imagen para railways in argentina

Publicado en 4AC2017, history | Deja un comentario